Mailing List: An
e-mail based discussion group. Sending one e-mail message to the
mailing list's list server sends mail to all other members of the
group. Users join a mailing list by subscribing. Subscribers to a
mailing list receive messages from all other members. Users have
to unsubscribe from a mailing list to stop receiving messages
forwarded from the group's members.
million bytes. A thousand kilobytes.
See Also: Byte
Instrument Digital Interface - a high quality audio file format.
Internet Mail Extensions) -- The standard for attaching non-text
files to standard Internet mail messages. Non-text files include
graphics, spreadsheets, formatted word-processor documents, sound
list of pairs of MIME-Types and
appropriate software for handling each type.
An email program is said to be MIME Compliant if it can both send
and receive files using the MIME standard.
When non-text files are sent using the MIME standard they are
converted (encoded) into text - although the resulting text is not
Generally speaking the MIME standard is a way of specifying both
the type of file being sent (e.g. a word document file), and the
method that should be used to turn it back into its original form.
Besides email software, the MIME standard is also universally used
by Web Servers to identify the files they are sending to Web
Clients, in this way new file formats can be accommodated simply
by updating the Browsers
See Also: Browser
, Client , Server ,
speaking, "to mirror" is to maintain an exact copy of
something. Probably the most common use of the term on the
Internet refers to "mirror sites" which are web sites, or
FTP sites that maintain exact copies of material originated at
another location, usually in order to provide more widespread
access to the resource.
Another common use of the term "mirror" refers to an
arrangement where information is written to more than one hard
disk simultaneously, so that if one disk fails, the computer keeps
on working without losing anything.
See Also: FTP
DEModulator) An electronic device that lets computers communicate
electronically. The name is derived from
"modulator-demodulator" because of their function in
processing data over analog phone lines. These days, some people
have begun to confuse them with Terminal Adapters. Basically,
modems do for computers what a telephone does for humans.
MOO: (Mud, Object
Oriented) -- One of several kinds of multi-user role-playing
environments. Basically, Dungeons and Dragons over the Internet.
See Also: MUD
Mosaic: The first
WWW browser that was available for the Macintosh, Windows, and
UNIX all with the same interface. Mosaic really started the
popularity of the Web. Later surpassed by Netscape
and then Internet Explorer.
See Also: Browser
, Client , WWW
MPEG: Motion Picture
Experts Group - a video file format offering excellent quality in
a relatively small file. Video files found on the Internet are
frequently stored in the MPEG format. Full length movies (like 'The
Net') are available on CD and are stored in the MPEG format.
Dungeon or Dimension) -- A (usually text-based) multi-user
simulation environment. Some are purely for fun and flirting,
others are used for serious software development, or education
everything that lies in between. A significant feature of
most MUDs is that users can create things that stay after they
leave and which other users can interact with in their absence,
thus allowing a world to be built gradually and collectively.
See Also: MOO
combination of media types on a single document, including: text,
graphics, animation, audio and video.
Simulated Environment) -- One kind of MUD - usually with little or
(a dungeon with no killing).
See Also: MOO
computer running a program that converts domain names into
appropriate IP addresses and vice versa. Name Servers (also known
as Domain Name Servers) are the backbone of the Internet system.
etiquette on the Internet.
See Also: Internet
from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the Internet, or
someone who uses networked resources. The term connotes civic
responsibility and participation.
Netscape: A WWW
Browser and the name of a company. The Netscape browser was
originally based on the Mosaic program developed at the National
Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA).
Netscape has grown in features rapidly and is widely recognized as
the best and most popular web browser. Netscape corporation also
produces web server software.
Netscape provided major improvements in speed and interface over
other browsers, and has also engendered debate by creating new
elements for the HTML language used by Web pages -- but the
Netscape extensions to HTML are not universally supported.
Netscape lost the competition with
Microsoft to build the best Internet browser and was taken over by
AOL in 1999, making Microsoft's Internet Explorer with about 75%
market share the dominant software to access the web.
The main author of Netscape, Mark Andreessen, was hired away from
the NCSA by Jim Clark, and they founded a company called Mosaic
Communications and soon changed the name to Netscape
Browser , Mosaic
Network: Any time
you connect 2 or more computers together so that they can share
resources, you have a computer network. Connect 2 or more networks
together and you have an internet.
Internet , Intranet
See Also: internet
name for discussion groups on USENET.
See Also: USENET
Information Center) -- Generally, any office that handles
information for a network. The most famous of these on the
Internet is the InterNIC, which is where new domain names used to
Another definition: NIC also refers to Network Interface Card
which plugs into a computer and adapts the network interface to
the appropriate standard. ISA, PCI, and PCMCIA cards are all
examples of NICs.
NNTP: (Network News
Transport Protocol) -- The protocol used by client and server
software to carry USENET postings back and forth over a TCP/IP
network. If you are using any common software like Netscape, Free
Agent or Internet Explorer, etc. to participate in newsgroups then
you are benefiting from an NNTP connection.
See Also: Newsgroup
Node: Any single
computer connected to a network.
See Also: Network
OC-3 and OC-12: High
speed data links carrying 155 and 622 Mbps of Data respectively.
OC-3's and OC-12's have replaced, or are replacing T-3's to make
up the backbone of the Internet.
Online: When you
connect to the Internet, you are online.
Packet: A chunk of
data. The TCP/IP protocol breaks large data files into smaller
"packets" for transmission. When the data reaches its
destination, the protocol makes sure that all packets have arrived
without error. Packets are used to transmit data on the Internet.
Packet Switching: The
method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet
switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into
chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from and where
it is going. This enables chunks of data from many different
sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and directed
to different routes by special machines along the way. This way
many people can use the same lines at the same time.
Password: A code
used to gain access to a locked (protected) system. Good passwords contain
letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations such as
virtue7. A good password might be: as-d45ip
PING: A program for
determining if another computer is presently connected to the
Pixel: Short for
picture element - the smallest unit of resolution on a monitor.
Commonly used as a unit of measurement.
PKZIP: A widely
available shareware utility allowing users to compress and
decompress data files. Helps reduce storage space and transfer
Plug-in: A (usually
small) piece of software that adds features to a larger piece of
software. Common examples are plug-ins for browsers
and web servers.
The idea behind plug-in's is that a small piece of software is
loaded into memory by the larger program, adding a new feature,
and that users need only install the few plug-ins that they need,
out of a much larger pool of possibilities. Plug-ins are usually
created by people other than the publishers of the software the
plug-in works with.
POP: (Point of
Presence, also Post Office Protocol) -- Two commonly used
meanings: Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol. A Point of
Presence usually means a city or location where a network can be
connected to, often with dial up phone lines. So if an Internet
company says they will soon have a POP in Belgrade, it means that
they will soon have a local phone number in Belgrade and/or a
place where leased lines can connect to their network. A second
meaning, Post Office Protocol refers to the way email software
such as Eudora gets mail from a mail server. When you obtain a
SLIP, PPP, or shell account you almost always get a POP account
with it, and it is this POP account that you tell your email
software to use to get your mail.
See Also: SLIP
Port: 3 meanings.
First and most generally, a place where information goes into or
out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port on a personal
computer is where a modem would be connected.,
standard web server port is 80).
On the Internet, port often refers to a number that is part of a
URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the domain name.
Every service on an Internet server listens on a particular port
number on that server. Most services have standard port numbers,
e.g. Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also
listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port number must
be specified in a URL when accessing the server, so you might see
a URL of the form:
(shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port
Finally, port also refers to translating a piece of software to
bring it from one type of computer system to another, e.g. to
translate a Windows program so that it will run on a Macintosh.
See Also: Domain
Name , Server , URL
Posting: A single
message entered into a network communications system.POST: is one of the two
most commonly used commands when computers communicate with each
other on the web and is vital for the use of online forms and
other interactive components [POST could then be seen as 'send my
input', while GET would be 'receive and display'].
E.g. A single message posted to a newsgroup or message board.
PPP: (Point to Point
Protocol) -- Most well known as a protocol that allows a computer
to use a regular telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IP
connections and thus be really and truly on the Internet.
See Also: IP
Number , Internet
rules that provide uniform specifications so that computer
hardware and operating systems can communicate. It's similar to
the way that mail, in countries around the world, is addressed in
the same basic format so that postal workers know where to find
the recipient's address, the sender's return address and the
postage stamp. Regardless of the underlying language, the basic
"protocols" remain the same.
PSTN: (Public Switched
Telephone Network) -- The regular old-fashioned telephone system.